(unstressed or, for some speakers, stressed)Homophone: end
From Middle Englishand, an, from Old Englishand, ond, end, from Proto-Germanic*andi, *anþi, from Proto-Indo-European*h₂énti(“facing opposite, near, in front of, before”). Cognate with Scotsan(“and”), North Frisianen(“and”), West Frisianen, in(“and”), Low Germanun(“and”), Dutchen(“and”), Germanund(“and”), Danishend(“but”), Swedishän(“yet, but”), Icelandicenn(“still, yet”), Albanianedhe(“and”) (dialectal ênde, ênne), ende(“still, yet, therefore”), Latin ante(“opposite, in front of”), and Ancient Greek ἀντί(antí, “opposite, facing”).
As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. [from 8th c.]
c. 1430 (reprinted 1888), Thomas Austin, ed., Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55 [Early English Text Society, Original Series; 91], London: N. Trübner & Co. for the Early English Text Society, volume I, OCLC 374760, page 11:
Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke […] caste þher-to Safroun an Salt […]
1596-97, William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, Act V Scene 1
Sweet lady, you have given me life and living; […]
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
1817, Jane Austen, Persuasion:
as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
2011, Mark Townsend, The Guardian, 5 November:
‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. [from 8th c.]
1991, Jung Chang, Wild Swans:
When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian, 5 November:
"Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. [from 9th c.]
1996, David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor:
‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
2004, Will Buckley, The Observer:, 22 August:
One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
(obsolete) Yet; but. [10th-17th c.]
1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Matthew XXII:
Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now often omitted in US); to connect fractions to wholes. [from 10th c.]
1906, Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, Chapter 26
In Chicago these latter were receiving, for the most part, eighteen and a half cents an hour, and the unions wished to make this the general wage for the next year.
1956, Dodie Smith, (title):
The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
(now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
1623, William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, First Folio, II.2:
And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay):
Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. [from 10th c.]
And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps[…].
1861, Charles Dickens, Great Expectations:
‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth[…].
1914, Saki, ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts:
‘And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair[…].’
(now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try. [from 14th c.]
1817, Jane Austen, Sanditon:
Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
1989, James Kelman, A Disaffection:
Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". [from 16th c.]
1936, The Labour Monthly, vol. XVIII:
Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
1972, Esquire, vol. LXXVIII:
"There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb). [from 17th c.]
1791, James Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson:
‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed[…].’
1871, Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There:
‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
(heading)Expressing a condition.
(now US dialect) If; provided that. [from 13th c.]
1485, Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur, Book VII:
"Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew XIV:
Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
1958, Shirley Ann Grau, The Hard Blue Sky:
"And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
(obsolete) As if, as though. [15th-17th c.]
1600, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream, I.2:
I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
1625, Francis Bacon, Of Innovations
As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs.
For quotations using this term, see Citations:and.
(used to connect two similar words or phrases):as well as, together with, in addition to
(informal):&, 'n', +
(obsolete except in fixed phrases):et
(in artist collaborations):x
See and/translations § Conjunction.
(music, often informal) In rhythm, the second half of a divided beat.
From Middle Englishande, from Old Englishanda(“grudge, enmity, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation; zeal; injury, mischief; fear, horror”) and Old Norseandi(“breath, wind, spirit”); both from Proto-Germanic*anadô(“breath, anger, zeal”), from Proto-Indo-European*h₂enh₁-(“to breathe, blow”). Cognate with GermanAhnd, And(“woe, grief”), Danishånde(“breath”), Swedishanda, ande(“spirit, breath, wind, ingenuity, intellect”), Icelandicandi(“spirit”), Albanianëndë(“pleasure, delight”), Latinanimus(“spirit, soul”). Related to onde.
aynd, eind, eynd, yane, end
(Britain dialectal) Breath.
(Britain dialectal) Sea smoke; steam fog.
From Middle Englishanden, from Old Englishandian(“to be envious or jealous, envy”) and Old Norseanda(“to breathe”); both from Proto-Germanic*anadōną(“to breathe, sputter”). Cognate with Germanahnden(“to avenge, punish”), Danishånde(“to breathe”), Swedishandas(“to breathe”), Icelandicanda(“to breathe”). See above.
eind, eynd, ein
and (third-person singular simple presentands, present participleanding, simple past and past participleanded)
(Britain dialectal, intransitive) To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.
ADN, DAN, DNA, Dan, Dan., NAD, NDA, dan, dna, nad
From Proto-Turkic*Ānt(“oath”). Cognate with Old Turkic𐰦 (nt), Turkishant.
and (definite accusativeandı, pluralandlar)
and içmək(“to take an oath”)
From Old Norseǫnd, from Proto-Germanic*anadz, cognate with GermanEnte, Dutcheend. The Germanic noun derives from Proto-Indo-European*h₂énh₂ts(“duck”), which is also the source of Latinanas, Ancient Greekνῆττα(nêtta), Lithuanianántis, Sanskritआति(ātí).
From Proto-Germanic*anda, *andi, probably from Proto-Indo-European*h₂énti(“facing opposite, near, in front of, before”). Compare Old Frisianand, Old Saxonendi, Old High Germanunti, Old Norseenn.
Middle English: and, ant, an, en
From Proto-Germanic*andi, from Proto-Indo-European*h₂énti(“facing opposite, near, in front of, before”). Compare Old Englishand, Old Saxonendi, Old High Germanunti, Old Norseenn.
North Frisian: en
Saterland Frisian: un
West Frisian: en, in
third-person singular masculine/neuter dative of i: in him, in it
c.800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 31b23
c.850-875, Turin Glosses and Scholia on St. Mark, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 484–94, Tur. 110c
Scottish Gaelic: ann
Alternative form of an
While and is relatively often written due to English influence, it is seldom pronounced as such, making way for an.
From Old Norseǫnd, from Proto-Germanic*anadz, from Proto-Indo-European*h₂énh₂t-(“duck”).
a wild duck
and in Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL)
-nad, Dan, dan
From Middle Dutchhant, from Old Dutchhant, from Proto-Germanic*handuz.