bye (archaic for preposition and adverb, not used for abbreviation, preferred for noun and interjection)
From Middle Englishby, bi, from Old Englishbī(“by; near; around”), from Proto-Germanic*bi(“near; by; around; about”). Cognate with West Frisianby(“by; near”), Afrikaansby(“at; by; near”), Saterland Frisianbie(“near; by”), Dutchbij(“near; by”), German Low Germanbi(“by; near; at”), Germanbei(“by; near; at”).
(UK, US) enPR: bī, IPA(key): /baɪ/
Homophones: bi, bye, buy
Near or next to.
From one side of something to the other, passing close by; past.
Not later than (the given time); not later than the end of (the given time interval).
Indicates the person or thing that does or causes something: Through the action or presence of.
With a passive verb.
With a noun.
There was a call by the unions for a 30% pay rise.
(not in common modern use)With an adjective.
I was aghast by what I saw.
1874, Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd, 2005 Barnes & Noble Classics publication of 1912 Wessex edition, p.109:
In other directions the fields and sky were so much of one colour by the snow that it was difficult in a hasty glance to tell whereabouts the horizon occurred[…].
Indicates the creator of a work: Existing through the authorship etc. of.
Indicates a means of achieving something: Involving/using the means of.
The electricity was cut off, so we had to read by candlelight.
"I don't want to spoil any comparison you are going to make," said Jim, "but I was at Winchester and New College." ¶ "That will do," said Mackenzie. "I was dragged up at the workhouse school till I was twelve. Then I ran away and sold papers in the streets, and anything else that I could pick up a few coppers by—except steal.[…]"
1945, Neva L. Boyd, Handbook of Recreational Games, 1975 Dover edition, →ISBN, p.16:
Players: Can we get there by candlelight? ¶ Gatekeepers: Yes and back again.
1960, Dr. Seuss, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish
By the light of the moon, / by the light of a star / they walked all night
Indicates an authority according to which something is done.
Invokes an authority in an oath.
1596-99, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, Act V, scene i:
By yonder moon I swear you do me wrong
Indicates a means of classification or organisation.
Indicates the amount of change, difference or discrepancy
In the formulae X by X and by Xs, indicates a steady progression, one X after another.
Indicates a referenced source: According to.
Used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something.
(horse breeding)Designates a horse's male parent (sire); cf. out of.
She's a lovely little filly, by Big Lad, out of Damsel in Distress.
by (not comparable)
Along a path which runs past the speaker.
I watched as it passed by.
In the vicinity, near.
There was a shepherd close by.
The shop is hard by the High Street.
To or at a place, as a residence or place of business.
I'll stop by on my way home from work.
We're right near the lifeguard station. Come by before you leave.
The women spent much time after harvest putting jams by for winter and spring.
by (not comparable)
Out of the way, subsidiary.
(Can we add an example for this sense?)
Alternative form of bye
Alternative spelling of bye
IPA(key): /bəi/, [bə̟i̯]
From Dutchbij, from Middle Dutchbi, from Old Dutchbī.
From Dutchbij, from Middle Dutchbie, from Old Dutch*bīa.
third-person singular conditional subjunctive of být; would
(clipping, informal); would
In formal language, it is used for the third person of the infinitive být, both singular and plural and with the second person of the verb být.
In colloquial Czech, by is commonly used in place of other conditional forms of být in both singular and plural if the subject is deducible from context (from the conjugated form of the verb). That is, by is a shared shorthand for bych, bys, bychom and byste.
by in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
by in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
From Old Norsebýr(“settlement”). Related to the element -by in English place names, such as Whitby.
(informal)Used to sign off a message/attribute a text.
ココにはバッファから生成したMAPのTEXTURE希望 by JAMAD
めざせ武道館！！ by 軽音部！
by (defective, invariable)
would (used with the past active participle to form a conditional)
This verb may be omitted before the past active participles of móc(“be able to”), kśěś(“want to”), and dejaś(“ought to”).
by in Ernst Muka/Mucke (St. Petersburg and Prague 1911–28): Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow / Wörterbuch der nieder-wendischen Sprache und ihrer Dialekte. Reprinted 2008, Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.
by in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.
past/conditional of s'
(dated)Past and conditional form of s'(used to introduce the comparative and superlative form of adjectives)
IPA(key): /byː/, [byː]
From Old Norsebýr(“place (to camp or settle), land, property, lot; and later settlement”).
town, city (regardless of population size or land area)
From Old Norsebjóða, from Proto-Germanic*beudaną(“to offer”), from Proto-Indo-European*bʰewdʰ-(“to wake, rise up”). Akin to Englishbid
byda, byde (long forms)
by (present tensebyr, past tensebaudorbydde, supinebodeorbyddorbydt, past participlebodenorbydd, present participlebydande, imperativeby)
to command, order
Eg byd deg å stoppe.
I command you to stop.
to bid, offer
Eg byd deg 100 kroner.
I offer you a 100 NOK.
Bestemor baud på småkaker.
Granny offered us cookies.
“by” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
(always before a verb) a particle used to make conditional mood; would, should
On by tam nie poszedł. = On nie poszedłby tam. — He would not go there.
in order to, so that
by in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
by in Polish dictionaries at PWN
From Old Swedishbȳr, bȳ(“village, farm, town”), from Old Norsebýr. Cognate with Danishby (“town, city”, whence also Faroesebýur with the same meaning), Norwegian Bokmålby(“town, city”) and Norwegian Nynorskby(“town, city”).
(obsolete) town, city
From Dutchbui or Low Germanbö, böe, böje. Cognate with Danishbyge, Norwegian Bokmålbyge, bøye and Norwegian Nynorskbye, bøye.
gust, rush of wind
by in Elof Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok (1st ed., 1922)
by in Nationalencyklopedin (needs an authorization fee).
by in Svenska Akademiens ordbok (SAOB)
(Clay) IPA(key): /bɛi̯/
(Wood) IPA(key): /bi/
in relation to
“by”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011